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Apart from gods or goddesses, medieval authors often refer to female guardian spirits identified as dísir and sometimes fylgjur. The conceptions under-lying these two kinds of spirits undoubtedly differed initially, however some of the later authors employed the terms interchangeably. [vc_row][vc_column width='3/4'] Reference is made several times to sacrifice to the dísir, conducted at the start of the winter season. The ritual...

The sator arepo formula was well known throughout the ancient and medieval worlds, and in fact, known as the "Devil's latin" or the "Devil's Square". It remained quite popular in Scandinavia into the 19th century as protection against theft and various illnesses. The magical effect of the formula lies in the fact that if properly spelt and laid out, it...

The Evolution of Civilizations expresses two dimensions of its author, Carroll Quigley, that most extraordinary historian, philosopher, and teacher. In the first place, its scope is wide-ranging, covering the whole of man's activities throughout time. Second, it is analytic, not merely descriptive. It attempts a categorization of man's activities in sequential fashion so as to provide a causal explanation of...

When reading Maier's journals and stumbling on his musical (harmony) ideas, the illusionary world and the references to the division "Parzival" one will meet without doubt Wagner and Schopenhauer. Wagner was profoundly inspired by philosophical ideas; not in dilettante fashion, but out of genuine interest, passionate need, and deep study. In early adulthood he was a real revolutionary socialist and a...

The problem of consciousness, alternatively put, is the problem of finding out how mental phenomena, such as thoughts and feelings, are related to physical occurrences in brains. This way of stating the problem assumes that some such relation exists, an assumption not always made in the history of philosophy. Since Descartes the debate has become more sophisticated, and in our...